NanoSpermviricide Gel : A Dual Acting Aid for Prevention of Unintended Pregnancy and Unprotected Sexual Intercourse Associated HIV

Students of Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai , Amit Girishkumar Mirani, Prashant Girish Upadhaya won the award for research project of NanoSpermviricide Gel : A Dual Acting Aid for Prevention of Unintended Pregnancy and Unprotected Sexual Intercourse Associated HIV. They carried their research work under guidance of Dr. Vandana B Patravale.

Prevention of HIV infection and unintended pregnancy has become a worldwide priority to reduce the health burden in women. Currently, various physical and chemical barriers are available in the market to serve this purpose individually, however, none of the simultaneous intervention approaches exists in the market with very few under clinical investigation. We propose novel “NanoSpermViricide Gel” for simultaneous prevention of HIV-1 infection and unintended pregnancy. NanoSpermViricide Gel is a combination of HIV-1 inhibitor (Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) with non-hormonal contraceptive (Quercetin) loaded in o/w microemulsion. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) curbs nucleotide reverse transcriptase enzyme while Quercetin downregulates p24 antigen production and HIV-1 entry inhibition. Additionally, Quercetin exerts both systemic and local contraceptive activity by decreasing the Ca+2 ATPase. The TDF and Quercetin was loaded in o/w microemulsion and was gelled using optimized concentration of Carbopol (1% w/w) to form a NanoSpermViricide gel with globule size in the range of 20-50nm. The developed gel exhibited slow release profile (Coitus independent behaviour), thereby improving the consumer compliance. The in vitro anti-HIV activity assessed using β-galactosidase assay indicated 6times increase in anti-HIV activity of TDF + Quercetin loaded o/w microemulsion (IC50 0.0052µM) as compared to Quercetin loaded o/w microemulsion (IC50 0.030 µM). Similarly, the in vitro spermicidal activity revealed that the 100x dilution of combination TDF + Quercetin o/w microemulsion based gel exhibited 10 times increase in inhibition of sperm motility as compared to conventional quercetin and combination gel formulation. The results ensure the enhanced efficacy by dual mechanism of action of developed NanoSpermViricide Gel to cater to the increasing social burden instigated due to HIV infection and unintended pregnancies, especially in developing nations.

The Hon’ble President of India, Shri Ram Nath Kovind awarded the Gandhian Young Technological Innovation (BIRAC – GYTI) Award to Amit Girishkumar Mirani, Prashant Girish Upadhaya, Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai at the GYTI 2018 Awards function held at Rashtrapati Bhawan on March 19, 2018.

Super-Resolution Ultrasonic Imaging (SUI)

Student of Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Kiran Kumar Amireddy won the award for the research project Super-Resolution Ultrasonic Imaging (SUI). He carried his research work under guidance of Dr. Krishnan Balasubramaniam and Dr. Prabhu Rajagopal.

Ultrasonic Imaging (UI) is widely used for characterization of materials in industry and biomedical applications because it is affordable and does not have risk of radiation. However conventional UI systems suffer from poor resolution in the range of millimeters, due to the Rayleigh limit to half the operating wavelength. Electromagnetic (EM) methods such as X-ray computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) etc., can yield resolution ranging to micrometers or nanometers, but these are expensive and carry a risk of radiation. 

Due to the limitations of UI, EM-based methods are often the only solution, which in parts of the world, are beyond the reach of healthcare providers and industrial inspectors. Improving the resolution of UI systems will make it possible to complement or replace X-ray CT systems used in medical diagnostics and characterization of industrial components. The proposed project seeks to overcome the limitation of UI by addressing the classical diffraction limit in imaging using custom designed holey meta material lenses. Using the principle of Fabry-Perot resonance, this meta material amplifies the evanescent waves in the structure (being imaged) to the far field. The project demonstrated SUI applications to sub wavelength resolution, imaging down to a feature size of λ/25 and characterization of defects in components. The results have yielded some of the highest resolution capabilities achieved experimentally in the ultrasonic regime. This project also yielded a cost-effective method of making meta-lenses using plastic straw tubes sourced off-the shelf.

The Hon’ble President of India, Shri Ram Nath Kovind awarded the Gandhian Young Technological Innovation (BIRAC – GYTI) Award to Kiran Kumar Amireddy, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, at the GYTI 2018 Awards function held at Rashtrapati Bhawan on March 19, 2018.

A Low-Cost Disposable Microfluidic Biochip for malaria diagnosis

Students of Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad, Brince Paul K, Asisa Kumar Panigrahi  won the award for developing a prototype of  A Low-Cost Disposable Microfluidic Biochip for malaria diagnosis. They carried their project work under guidance of Prof. Shiv Govind Singh.

Malaria is one of the leading life threatening infectious disease in underdeveloped and developing countries. According to the latest report (2016) from world health organization (WHO), there were 212 million cases of malaria and an estimated 429, 000 malaria deaths. Malaria is caused by protozoan of the genus Plasmodium spread by female Anopheles species mosquitoes. Among these, Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) is the most severe form of malaria and interest is focused on the detection of Plasmodium-specific proteins. One of these, falciparum histidinerich protein II (HRP II) based assays shows the better sensitivity and specificity compared to those of other proteins for the detection of P. falciparum. At present, there are several clinical methods to diagnosis malaria by detecting histidinerich protein II. However, these techniques are time consuming, expensive, and require a trained technician. In the view of the above, the development of a simple, cheap, and fully integrated point-of-care biochip is extremely required for early detection of malarial parasites and prevention of malarial epidemic. Here, we present the realization of a portable, flexible, and low cost biochip for quantitative malaria diagnostic testing at the point-of-care. The biochip incorporates a sensing platform integrated with a three-electrode system and microfluidics fabricated via low cost printing and tune transfer method. The sensing electrode consists of malarial specific antibody conjugated nanofibers. Upon recognizing the presence of even a trace of malaria’s biomarkers in blood serum, the device registered a signal. It will be useful in rural areas where diagnostic facilities are not available readily. This fully integrated biochip offers a promising cost-effective approach for detection of several other infectious disease biomarkers for point-of- care diagnostics.

The Hon’ble President of India, Shri Ram Nath Kovind awarded the Gandhian Young Technological Innovation (BIRAC – GYTI) Award to Brince Paul K, Asisa Kumar Panigrahi, Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad at the GYTI 2018 Awards function held at Rashtrapati Bhawan on March 19, 2018.

A Novel Strategy to Block Malaria Transmission

Students of Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, Divya Beri, Shweta Chaubey, Aparna Sudhakar won the award for the research project Understanding the Design Principles of Protein Nanosensor to Combat Multidrug Resistant Enterobacteriaceae. They carried their research work under guidance of Prof. Utpal Tatu.

Malaria is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in India. Malaria parasites have a complex life cycle with two forms in the human host; asexual forms that cause the clinical manifestations and sexual forms (gametocytes) which are transmissible forms of the parasite leading to its spread from a diseased host to a healthy host via the vector. Most drugs that are administered target only asexual forms and are in fact, reported to enhance the number of gametocytes; thus, creating a silent reservoir of parasites which potentiates further transmission. Recent reports have suggested an upsurge of asymptomatic malaria which does not manifest in clinical illness but represents individuals that can sustain transmission. Due to very low number of transmissible gametocytes found in clinical cases/asymptomatic malaria, incapability of malaria rapid detection kits (RDT) to differentiate between asexual and sexual stages and induction of clinical gametocytes with most front-line antimalarial drugs, control and elimination of malaria are nearly impossible. Given the essentiality of this stage for parasite survival and propagation, our group demonstrated that redox stress created by the parasite’s own growth is responsible for the commitment to gametocytes (Chaubey et al, Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2014).

Our study, for the first time, shows a physiological metabolite homocysteine linked to gametocytogenesis in in vitro cultures as well as in the mouse model of cerebral malaria (Beri et al, Nature Scientific Reports. 2017). We propose the application of this finding to develop transmission blocking molecules. Molecules targeting homocysteine may prove as attractive therapeutic interventions in blocking commitment to sexual stages. Its administration, along with currently marketed drugs against asexual stages, will ensure complete abrogation of the parasite.

The Hon’ble President of India, Shri Ram Nath Kovind awarded the Gandhian Young Technological Innovation (BIRAC – GYTI) Award to Divya Beri, Shweta Chaubey, Aparna Sudhakar, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, at the GYTI 2018 Awards function held at Rashtrapati Bhawan on March 19, 2018.

Smartphone-based impedimetric disposable biosensor for detection of cardiac biomarkers

Students of Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Debasmita Mondal, Sourabh Agrawal won the award for developing a prototype of Smartphone-based impedimetric disposable biosensor for detection of cardiac biomarkers. They carried their project work under guidance of Dr. Soumyo Mukherji.

A smartphone-enabled disposable, label-free, impedimetric biosensor to detect two common cardiac biomarkers, Myoglobin (Myo) and Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is developed. The device consists of a sensor and a module for interfacing with smartphone. The sensor, fabricated on Whatman filter paper, is coated with a conducting polymer, polyaniline (PAni) and immobilized with antibodies specific to each biomarker protein. Non-specific active regions of the sensor are blocked by treatment with bovine serum albumin. Electrodes for AC impedance measurement are deposited using conductive silver paste. Binding of target protein to specific antibody affects the dielectric constant between the electrodes, thus changing the impedance. Myo and MPO in buffer solution are detected from 100 ng/mL – 50 μg/mL within 100 Hz – 1 kHz. Detection limit obtained for these biomarkers spiked in human serum is 500 ng/mL. The developed biosensor uses inexpensive materials and fabrication techniques, detects cardiac biomarkers in clinically relevant concentrations rapidly (~20 minutes), can be disposed in an environment friendly manner, thus making the sensor suitable for diagnostic applications. To make a handheld, portable point-of-care device, a plug and play module for smartphone is developed providing a cost and space effective solution. Prepared module acts as a peripheral to the phone and can be carried in pocket along with headphone. A lowpower and low-cost potentiostat is designed in the peripheral which connects to the audio jack and gets power from the USB port of smartphone. Frequency range of the peripheral is limited to audio range (10 Hz – 10 kHz). Maximum duration each frequency signal can be generated is 5 Seconds. Onetime buying price of a single unit at research level is ~INR 1500 along with a minimal price for cartridge i.e., the sensor.

The Hon’ble President of India, Shri Ram Nath Kovind awarded the Gandhian Young Technological Innovation (BIRAC – GYTI) Award to Debasmita Mondal, Sourabh Agrawal, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay at the GYTI 2018 Awards function held at Rashtrapati Bhawan on March 19, 2018.

Design of Low Cost Infrared Vein Detector

Student of Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Trivikram Annamalai won the award for the research project Design of Low Cost Infrared Vein Detector. He carried his project work under guidance of Prof. Purba Joshi and Prof. B. K. Chakravarthy.

Vein Detector Device

A study states that for 16 out of every 100 patients it is difficult to spot veins and they have to undergo multiple vein punctures to find the correct vein -This problem is even more profound in cases of children, dark skinned, obese and elderly people which is painful and leads to rashes/marks on patient’s skin. The current products in market which address this issue are extremely expensive, not hygienic, complex to use and bulky. The proposed solution tries to solve the above mentioned issues- while also being ergonomic and aesthetically designed. The device works based on NIR spectroscopy, where infrared waves are absorbed differently by oxygenated and de-oxygenated blood in the veins there by appearing darker – this helps the doctors and nurses to locate the veins easily and conduct one successful veni puncture instead of multiple painful ones. The designed device would bring affordable healthcare to the bottom of the pyramid and immensely benefit small clinics and hospitals, blood banks, blood test labs, etc. In delivering effective medical treatment.

The Hon’ble President of India, Shri Ram Nath Kovind awarded the Gandhian Young Technological Innovation (GYTI) Award to Trivikram Annamalai, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay at the GYTI 2018 Awards function held at Rashtrapati Bhawan on March 19, 2018.

Decellularized Corneal Matrix (DCM) Based Injectable Hydrogel For Strengthening Cornea Matrix In Severe Corneal Keratoconus

Students of Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad, Shibu Chameettachal, Dr. M S Sridhar won the award for the research project Decellularized Corneal Matrix (DCM) Based Injectable Hydrogel For Strengthening Cornea Matrix In Severe Corneal Keratoconus. They carried their research work under guidance of Dr. Falguni Pati.

Keratoconus (KC) has been classically described as a non-inflammatory pathology, characterized by a conical shape of the cornea, as a result of thinning and protrusion and finally blindness. The etiopathogenesis is still under research and it may be the final manifestation of diverse pathologic processes. Keratoconus (KC)is considered the most common ectatic disorders of the cornea associated with corneal biomechanical instability. The existing treatment procedures are either risky or complicated surgical interventions. We propose an extracellular matrix based tissue engineering approach as an alternative treatment strategy by thickening the stromal area using a novel injectable decellularized caprine cornea matrix (DCM) hydrogel that would integrate with the existing thin stroma. Upon longer time period the filled area becomes transparent via remodelling with the cues from microenvironment. We envision that this technique has a huge potential to replace current treatment strategies those are complex surgical procedures like ICRS, DALK , PK, Bowmans layer transplantation and collagen UV crosslinking treatment which required highly skilled hands and make it risky and costly. We believe that this approach has the potential to change the clinical landscape by eliminating the current dependency on surgery and most importantly the success of this project will reduced the dependency for human cadaveric cornea for transplantation.

The Hon’ble President of India, Shri Ram Nath Kovind awarded the Gandhian Young Technological Innovation (BIRAC – GYTI) Award to Shibu Chameettachal, Dr. M S Sridhar, Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad at the GYTI 2018 Awards function held at Rashtrapati Bhawan on March 19, 2018.

Miniaturized Fluorescence adapter for Fluorescence Sputum Smear Microscopy using bright-field microscope

Students of Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Vikas Pandey, Pooja Singh, Saurabh Singh won the award for developing a prototype of Miniaturized Fluorescence adapter for Fluorescence Sputum Smear Microscopy using bright-field microscope. They carried their project work under guidance of Dr. Ravikrishnan Elangovan.

TB infection is one of the major healthcare problems in India. The bright-field sputum smear microscopy (SSM) is the most common method used for TB diagnosis in India, however SSM has poor sensitivity. Consequently, only 64% of total TB infected patients are being diagnosed and treated. Every single undiagnosed TB patient infects at least 10-15 healthy individuals, keeping the vicious disease cycle going. WHO has recommended LED-Fluorescence Microscopy with higher sensitivity for TB diagnosis in high TB burden countries like India. The adoption of LED-FM has been slow mainly due to high cost (approximately~2lakhs INR after subsidy), additional infrastructure, training and maintenance of new fluorescence microscope.

India has approximately 14000 RNTCP centers (each caters approximately 100,000 people), but only 2500 centers has LED-fluorescence microscopes. This diagnostic infrastructure gap between the actual requirement and availability is a major bottleneck. At IIT Delhi, We have developed a unique fluorescence microscopy technology, cTIRF: compact Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence”. The cTIRF converts a simple brightfield microscope to fluorescence microscope without any hassle of tedious illumination mechanism, optical filters, and additional lens installation. This 3D-printed module is highly compact (~approx size of calculator), robust, cost effective and allows rapid (lesser than 2mins) TB diagnosis without additional infrastructure, cost and training. While the sputum sample processing, smear preparation and auramine-O staining remains same as recommended by WHO. The clinical validation of cTIRF is running at 2 hospital sites. This affordable technology is a cost-effective way of upgrading the existing microscopes for fluorescence TB diagnosis. In alignment of Govt. of India mission to eradicate TB by 2025, the cTIRF can be a scalable solution for easy and rapid deployment across India.

The Hon’ble President of India, Shri Ram Nath Kovind awarded the Gandhian Young Technological Innovation (BIRAC – GYTI) Award to Vikas Pandey, Pooja Singh, Saurabh Singh, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi at the GYTI 2018 Awards function held at Rashtrapati Bhawan on March 19, 2018.

Two week WIPO-INDIA Program

WIPO-INDIA Summer School on Intellectual Property( 2 to 13 July 2018)

WIPO Academy, the RGNIIPM Nagpur and the National Law University Nagpur, hosting WIPO-INDIA Summer School in Nagpur, India.  The Summer School program provides an opportunity to students and young professionals to acquire deeper knowledge of each domain of Intellectual property (IP) and role and functions of WIPO. The program consists of lectures, case studies, simulation exercises and group discussions etc.

Basic Information

Venue RGNIIPM & NLU Nagpur
Registration date 22 March  to  15 May 2018
Payment          date 21 May  to 15 June 2018
Training Course date 2  to 13 July 2018
Language English
Certificate WIPO, RGNIIPM & NLU
Course Administrator summerschool.india@wipo.int
Further details rgniipm.ipo@nic.in    9922453057 / 9422812261 / 9422809065

Eligibility: The Summer School is open to 50 Participants like,

  • Students(graduate and postgraduate) and
  • Young professionalsfrom any field of study or discipline.
  • All applicants are required to have successfully completed the Six week free WIPO distance learning General Course on Intellectual Property (DL101).

                  for course visit     https://welc.wipo.int/acc/index.jsf?page=courseCatalog.xhtml

Documents to be uploaded compulsorily:

  • Motivation letter for Summer School (reason for applying & what hope to gain from the Summer School) (Maximum 300 words)
  • Recent Curriculum Vitae/Resume
  • Identification documents such as passport or National ID
  • DL101 Course Certificate (distance learning 6 week free online WIPO course)

Registration Fees: Registration fees are payable upon notification of acceptance.

Ø  Students & young professionals from developing countries and countries in transition and residing in those countries:

(i) Students: US$ 100

(ii)Young professionals: US$ 200

Ø  Students and young professional from developed countries:

(i) Students: US$ 150

(ii) Young professionals: US$ 300

For further details and Online Registration for WIPO Summer school:-

rgniipm.ipo@nic.in  9922453057 / 9422812261 / 9422809065 / 0712-2542961 / 2542979 / 542969

http://www.wipo.int/academy/en/courses/summer_school/

https://welc.wipo.int/acc/index.jsf?page=wssCatalog.xhtml&lang=en

Understanding the design principles of protein nanosensor to combat multidrug resistant enterobacteriaceae

Student of Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Abhishek Narayan won the award for the research project Understanding the Design Principles of Protein Nanosensor to Combat Multidrug Resistant Enterobacteriaceae. He carried his research work under guidance of Dr. Athi Narayanan N.

Developing a treatment for common gastric disorders that affect humans is an active area of research. Enterobacteriaceae generally cause these disorders – the most recognizable among these is E. coli. While antibiotics are generally employed upon infection, a growing concern is the emergence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria – wherein they ‘acquire’ genes that can code for enzymes to break down the chemical antibiotics – will effectively reduce the impact of antibiotics and make the human population vulnerable. In this regard, it is necessary to understand how pathogenic genes are expressed in bacteria upon infection. As humans are warm-blooded, it has been proposed that the constant body temperature triggers the expression of toxic genes in bacteria. This raises questions on the molecular mechanism by which bacteria sense temperature. Natural candidates for sensory behavior in biological systems are proteins – small molecular machines (dimensions of ~10 Å) that could potentially change their conformation (i.e. the relative arrangement of atoms) upon temperature changes. To tackle these questions, we studied a putative thermo-sensory protein Cnu, through numerous biophysical techniques, theoretical modeling and simulations. In our work, we consistently show that Cnu senses small temperature changes through modulation of a particular part of helical structure that increasingly samples various conformations with increasing temperature. Our work clearly points out that upon infection and at the body temperature of 37 °C the structure of Cnu is partially melted that in turn eliminates binding to the partner protein and hence promotes toxic gene expression. To summarize, we explain the macroscopic bacterial infection phenomenon through specific changes in the interaction profiles at the microscopic molecular level, an area we believe that could potentially contribute to the development of new drugs to control bacterial infection.

The Hon’ble President of India, Shri Ram Nath Kovind awarded the Gandhian Young Technological Innovation (BIRAC – GYTI) Award to Abhishek Narayan, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, at the GYTI 2018 Awards function held at Rashtrapati Bhawan on March 19, 2018.