Feasibility Study of Wireless Power Transfer Using Metamaterial

Students of Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Amit Kumar Baghel, Shashank Satish Kulkarni won the award for research work of Feasibility Study of Wireless Power Transfer Using Metamaterial. They carried their project work under guidance of Dr. Sisir Kumar Nayak, D. Senthil Kumar.

Wireless power transfer (WPT) is the method to transfer power from the source to load without cables or wires started way back in 1903 by Dr. Nicolas Tesla. Nowadays this technique is being used in many applications such as biomedical transplants, UAVs, mobile chargers, electric vehicle charging, antennas etc. But the major problem with the WPT is the decrease in the efficiency as the distance is increased. In near field, the strength of the field varies inversely as the square of distance and cube of distance for far field. One of the novel ways by which we can increase the intensity of field, thus power transfer is with the help of meta-material.

They are manually engineered with negative refractive index and help in beam focusing. It can act as a super-lens. My innovation is about increasing the efficiency of far-field WPT using metamaterial. The metamaterial pattern is made on the 1. 6 mm thick double-sided FR4 sheet (dielectric constant 0.02) having 0.017 mm thick copper plating on both side of the sheet. A total of 40 arrays having 8 unit cell in each is placed at an optimized distance from the aperture of the proposed horn antenna (Tx antenna). The electric field at the distance of 6 m is measured using the D-dot sensor. The receiver antenna is 2×2 patch antenna having RF to DC conversion schottky diode and matching circuit. To charge the batteries of the cellphone (2900 mAh, 3.8 V), the zener diode with RC filter is placed after the matching circuit. An increase in twice the electric field , thus the received power is seen with the proposed antenna and meta-material.

The Hon’ble President of India, Shri Ram Nath Kovind awarded the Gandhian Young Technological Innovation (GYTI) Award to Amit Kumar Baghel, Shashank Satish Kulkarni, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati at the GYTI 2018 Awards function held at Rashtrapati Bhawan on March 19, 2018.

A Novel low cost Polyvinyl alcohol-Nafion-Borosilicate membrane separator for microbial fuel cell treating distillery wastewater

Students of Indian Institute of Technology Khragpur, Bikash Ranjan Tiwari, Md. Tabish Noori won the award for research work of A Novel low cost Polyvinyl alcohol-Nafion-Borosilicate membrane separator for microbial fuel cell treating distillery wastewater. They carried their project work under guidance of Prof. Makarand Madhao Ghangrekar.

Microbial fuel cell (MFC) are bioelectrochmical systems which convert the organic matter present in the wastewater to electricity with the aid of biocatalytic acitvity of a specific group of microorganism i.e. electrogens. MFCs presents a promising solution to both waste removal as well energy generation simultaneously. The high manufacturing cost of MFC is a major hurdle in the path of field scale application. The membrane cost ($1600/m2) alone accounts for around 35% of total MFC capital cost.Hence, development of low cost membranes can ease the path for real world application of MFCs. In the present study, a composite membrane was developed from borosilicate glass incorporated with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-Nafion matrix. While utilizing acetate based synthetic wastewater, MFC with PVA-Nafion-Borosilicate membrane exhibited maximum power density of 6.8 Wm-3 and it was comparable with MFC using commercially available Nafion 117 (7.1 Wm-3) membrane separator. Moreover, the method of preparation is simple and cost of the novel membrane is 11- folds lower than commercially available Nafion 117. The study was further extended by utilizing the MFC with the newly developed membrane for distillery wastewater treatment. effluent generated from distilleries are characterized by their high COD and BOD content and acidic pH which can cause serious environmental problems if not properly treated. The MFC was capable of efficiently degrading organic matter present in distillery wastewater in the range of 54.5 – 64.25% along with generating a maximum power density of 4.3 Wm-3. This study demonstrates a novel, low cost, easily synthesizable membrane which was successfully used for treatment of distillery wastewater treatment in MFCs.

The Hon’ble President of India, Shri Ram Nath Kovind awarded the Gandhian Young Technological Innovation (GYTI) Award to Bikash Ranjan Tiwari, Md. Tabish Noori, Indian Institute of Technology Khragpur at the GYTI 2018 Awards function held at Rashtrapati Bhawan on March 19, 2018.

An Alternative Technology to Produce Biomass-Based Food Grade Flavors, Fuels and Value Added Chemicals

Students of Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Shelaka Gupta, Md. lmteyaz Alam, Tuhin S. Khan, Ejaz Ahmad, Fatima Jalid won the award for research work of An Alternative Technology to Produce Biomass-Based Food Grade Flavors, Fuels and Value Added Chemicals. They carried their project work under guidance of Prof. M. Ali Haider.

State-of-the-art technologies applied today to convert biomass into high value fuels and chemicals are based on multi-step catalytic transformation steps, which are difficult to commercialize. Here, as an alternative, a technology (TNEW) based on integrated bio and chemo-catalytic reactions is developed, to carry out the desired conversion of biomass in fewer steps, giving higher product yield. In TNEW, 6- amyl-alpha-pyrone (6PP) is identified as a potential biomass-derived platform chemical. 6PP is produced from the fermentation of waste biomass using Trichoderma species and catalytically converted into 2-nonene-4-one, hydric alcohol, δ-decalactone (DDL) etc., under relatively mild processing conditions. While DDL and 2-nonene-4-one showed direct applications as food flavor and aroma, other products may be used as precursors for polymers, pharmaceuticals and hydrocarbon fuels. Three Indian patent applications related to the commercial development have been filed. Socially, the simplistic nature of our technology is expected to have a wider impact on rural economy and environment. For example, at present large volume of waste lignocellulosic biomass is burnt in the national capital region of India, creating air pollution at alarming levels. Farmers burning such valuable biomass may choose to utilize TNEW and ferment the waste biomass directly to produce 6PP which can be subsequently converted to produce high value chemicals. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time in our country a novel biomass-derived platform chemical is introduced which is different from the top-12 chemicals proposed by the US Department of Energy. This will add into the portfolio of a futuristic bio-refinery, providing a renewable and sustainable solution.

The Hon’ble President of India, Shri Ram Nath Kovind awarded the Gandhian Young Technological Innovation (BIRAC – GYTI) Award to Shelaka Gupta, Md. lmteyaz Alam, Tuhin S. Khan, Ejaz Ahmad, Fatima Jalid, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi at the GYTI 2018 Awards function held at Rashtrapati Bhawan on March 19, 2018.

A multipurpose low cost biological air purifier

Students of Dr. D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, Neeta Ganesh Wagle, Priti Prabhakar Yewale won the award for developing a prototype of  A multipurpose low cost biological air purifier. They carried their project work under guidance of Dr. Neelu Nawani.

In recent years, air pollution has become a major threat to survival of mankind. Looking at the current problem, biological air purifier would deliver a smart solution to circumvent the problem of indoor and outdoor air pollution caused due to motor vehicles, occupational exposure, cigarette smoke and industrial emissions in particular and will also focus on utility of the air purifier in reducing exposure of public to air pollutants. The team has designed and fabricated a prototype of biological air purifier- “Biosmotrap” comprising of compact carriage assembly with replaceable adsorbent packed in biodegradable pouches or wrappers by means of support meshes and clamping structures and further attached to vents, exhaust or any outlet from where gases are released in any process. The microbial biomass and/or natural bio-materials were employed in the form of solid porous material as an adsorbent. The adsorbent is configured to adsorb air pollutants like smoke, aerosols, particulate matter, flue gases, soot or other air pollutants. The shelf life of adsorbent depends on the concentration of air pollutants from the source point. It reduces the levels of organic as well as inorganic pollutants from the air. The onetime cost of carriage assembly is incurred with each biological air purifier. It can be reused for longer duration until it breaks or needs repair. Also, with the use of recyclable adsorbent material the cost per air purifier is lowered by making it affordable to everyone. This lowers the overall cost of maintenance when compared to conventional air purification technologies and increases its utility by encouraging public at large to use such devices. The fabricated prototype is easy to operate, cost-effective, recyclable and environmental friendly.

The Hon’ble President of India, Shri Ram Nath Kovind awarded the Gandhian Young Technological Innovation (BIRAC – GYTI) Award to Neeta Ganesh Wagle, Priti Prabhakar Yewale, Dr. D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune at the GYTI 2018 Awards function held at Rashtrapati Bhawan on March 19, 2018.

Roll Pure – Rolling Water Purifier

Students of Indian Institute of Technology, Madras ,Ramesh Kumar, Swathy Ravindran won the award for developing a prototype of Roll Pure – Rolling Water Purifier. They carried their project work under guidance of Prof. Thalappil Pradeep.

In rural India, people, mostly women and kids, still carry water on their head or shoulder from available local water bodies, sometimes even carrying non-potable water. According to a survey carried out in 2012 by National Sample Survey Office (NSSO), about 54% of women from rural areas travel between 200 meters to 5 kilometers, average 20 minutes a day and additional 15 minutes to fetch water, amounting to 27 days of wages per annum for an individual. According to NSSO statistics, less than 10% of rural Indian household has the facility to treat water at home before its end use. This whole process results in physical fatigue of women and waterborne diseases such as diarrhea, anemia and child mortality hence many resulting postaffects. Roll Pure – Rolling water purifier provides solution for the overhead transportation of nonpotable. A user (women) can fill 40 liters of raw water from any water source (i.e. river, canal, pond, municipal hand-pump or tap etc.) and roll it to home, with minimum time required for transportation without any physical fatigue. To make fed water potable, a 1) hand-operable pump and 2) modular geo-genic contaminant specific cartridge is used. Modular geo-genic contaminant specific cartridge has 1) biocidal material, 1000 times biocidal then silver nanoparticles to kill bacterial and viral contaminants and 2) nano-composite material to remove soluble chemical contaminants. To get chemical and biological contaminant-free water with high output flow rate, a pressure differential is generated using bellow pump. Roll Pure can provide chemical and biological contaminant free water to India’s rural BoP with minimal transportation effort and without any power.

The Hon’ble President of India, Shri Ram Nath Kovind awarded the Gandhian Young Technological Innovation (BIRAC – GYTI) Award to Ramesh Kumar, Swathy Ravindran, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras at the GYTI 2018 Awards function held at Rashtrapati Bhawan on March 19, 2018.

Point of Care Nano Diagnostic Kit for Brucellosis

Students of Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai, Rohit Shivaji Pawar, Swati Suhas Vyas won the award for developing a prototype of Point of Care Nano Diagnostic Kit for Brucellosis. They carried their project work under guidance of Dr. Vandana B. Patravale.

Brucellosis, a neglected global zoonotic infectious disease is transmitted to humans through consumption of unpasteurized dairy products and direct contact with afflicted animals. Presence of bacteria such as Brucella spp. in dairy products is an immense risk to public health. The innovation herein describes the development of immunochromatographic diagnostic kit (ICDT) based on fluorescence silica nanosensors that serves as a promising nanodiagnostic approach for detection of intact Brucella antibodies in nonserological samples eliminating painful blood collection procedures. Point of care immunoassays are rapid as they can quickly screen various samples in relatively shorter duration, are sensitive, specific, offer great advantage in accurate and fast diagnosis of infectious diseases. We have fabricated a point of care rapid diagnostic assay that employs fluorescent, micellar silica nanosensors conjugated with lipopolysaccharides (Indian patent application 3183/MUM/2013) capable of specifically detecting Brucella IgG antibodies in non-serological samples of afflicted animal (milk, urine, saliva) and human samples (urine, saliva).

 

The developed kit holds its industrial application in agricultural , biotechnological and pharmaceutical arena. We have successfully fabricated and evaluated the aforementioned kit. The developed ICDT provides a rapid, reliable, point-of-care, accurate and reproducible results in accordance with PCR and ELISA results with high sensitivity and specificity.Additionally, well defined antigenic components and surface biomarkers of various disease causing microbes can be broadly incorporated within the purview of this technology for accurate and rapid detection of suspected bovine pathological conditions, and can largely enable rapid field testing that can be implemented in farms and food Industry. Since the developed technology is novel, cost effective yet scalable; it fits “Make In India” initiative to foster innovation, enhance skill development, create intellectual property and generate revenue.

The Hon’ble President of India, Shri Ram Nath Kovind awarded the Gandhian Young Technological Innovation (BIRAC – GYTI) Award to  Rohit Shivaji Pawar, Swati Suhas Vyas, Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai at the GYTI 2018 Awards function held at Rashtrapati Bhawan on March 19, 2018.

Design and development of Phase Change Material (PCM) based Milking cum Cooling Pail

Student of National Dairy Research Institute, Bangalore, Ravi Prakash won the award for developing a prototype of Design and development of Phase Change Material (PCM) based Milking cum Cooling Pail. He carried his project work under guidance of Dr. Menon Rekha Ravindra and Dr. M. Manjunatha.

It is imperative to immediately cool milk from its drawing temperature (37 °C) to below the critical temperature (10 °C) in order to preserve the safety and quality of milk and its derived products. 

In developed and large-scale commercial dairy enterprise, this critical step in post-production processing of milk is achieved by integrating the milking machine with chilling unit accessorised with suitable piping and storage tanks. However, in a country like India where most of the dairy farmers belong to a class of millions of scattered small scale producers (0.5 – 10 L per head), such sophistications are neither pragmatic nor economical at the field level. This project aims at developing a system/device that could instantly cool small volumes of milk at the on-farm level preferably simultaneous to the milking to minimize the time gap between milk production and milk cooling below critical limit, even if the farmer has only one animal. 

Considering the gap between demand and supply of electricity in rural areas, the suitable nanofluid based phase change material with enhanced cooling energy storage capacity was primarily designed, evaluated and to be filled into the double jacketed space of an insulated milking cum cooling pail accessorised with a charger (a hermetically sealed well-matched refrigeration unit). The operation, handling and maintenance of the pail is farmer-friendly, sealed and resembles as daily used milking pail. This technology is envisaged to have very high socioeconomic utility; by helping millions of small scale milk producers/dairy farmers in developing countries like India in maintaining quality of milk and milk products, and contributing to the overall economy of the country.

The Hon’ble President of India, Shri Ram Nath Kovind awarded the Gandhian Young Technological Innovation (BIRAC – GYTI) Award to Ravi Prakash, National Dairy Research Institute, Bangalore at the GYTI 2018 Awards function held at Rashtrapati Bhawan on March 19, 2018.

Batteryless IoT Sensing Node

Students of Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Anandarup Mukherjee, Arijit Roy, Sanku Kumar Roy won the award for developing a prototype of Batteryless IoT Sensing Node. They carried their project work under guidance of Prof. Sudip Misra.

Being a primarily agrarian nation, India still has a large chunk of its population earning their livelihood through agriculture or its associated practices. However, the recent climatic changes are disrupting the time-tested and age-old agricultural practices, which were mainly intuition based or seasonal.

Despite the availability of scientific means of agricultural practices in India, they are not practiced at their full potential due to prohibitive initial costs or high maintenance costs. In our proposed innovation, we specifically are focusing on sensor nodes which are used for monitoring the agricultural field parameters. We have developed a battery-less sensor node which is designed to be placed in the field, without any chance of getting their power supplies replenished. We believe that reducing certain essential components in a sensor-based system, such as the battery, the net cost of each sensor nodes comes down, which in turn makes it more affordable to the masses. As purchasing the almost maintenance-free sensor node is a one-time investment for the farmer, the benefits of the purchase in terms of increased water savings, higher yield, and power savings, far outweigh the initial costs. The only recurring cost to be borne by the farmers is the basic cellular data connectivity for the mobile charger and aggregator node, and minimal subscription charges for using the server-based analytics. Additionally, this approach not only increases the functional lifetime of sensor nodes beyond the typical 1-2 years mark but also makes it much cheaper in the long run. Being a pick-and-place solution, it can be easily operated and handled by people with no prior technical know-how, especially in the rural areas. Link: https://youtu.be/1IMcryb-cfY

The Hon’ble President of India, Shri Ram Nath Kovind awarded the Gandhian Young Technological Innovation (GYTI) Award to Anandarup Mukherjee, Arijit Roy, Sanku Kumar Roy, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpurat the GYTI 2018 Awards function held at Rashtrapati Bhawan on March 19, 2018.

Nano based soil conditioner for agricultural application

Students of  Tezpur University, Assam , Pallabi Das, Kasturi Sarmah won the award for research work of Nano based soil conditioner for agricultural application. They carried their research work under guidance of Dr. Sanjay Pratihar and  Dr. Satya Sundar Bhattacharya.

Available forms of iron, copper, and manganese in soil are scarce especially in arid regions where the soil pH varies from neutral to alkaline range, leading to acute deficiency of these micro-nutrients. Crop production in such soils is severely hindered. Iron salts such as ferrous sulphate has routinely been used to treat Fe deficient soil that greatly affects phosphorous availability and results in soil acidification in the long run. We developed easy, novel, and large-scale synthetic routes (1.5 Kg to 15 Kg in a single batch) to manufacture iron(oxalate) capped metal oxide [Fe(ox)-Fe3O4 (OCIO), Fe(ox)Fe-MnOx (OCIMn), and Fe(ox)Fe-CuOx (OCICu)] nanomaterials that are wonderful soil conditioners for increasing micro-nutrient availability to plants with least toxicity (Patent application no. 201631010727).

 Their Moderate (10 ppm) exposure improved seed germination and they were harmless to beneficial soil bacteria. We also recorded negligible oxidative stress in plants up to 50 ppm exposure levels of the nanomaterials. OCIO, OCICu, and OCIMn balance the soil pH; sustain Fe, Cu, and Mn availability without increasing soil acidity thereby promoting release of NPK through benefitting soil microbial health. These nanomaterials corrected micronutrient deficiency in soil and significantly augmented tomato production in farmer’s field by upregulation of vital genes responsible for root growth, photosynthesis, and N-assimilation (RSL4, MATE8, Ferredoxin, GS2, GOGAT, and NR). The crop yield was 2.3-3.4 folds greater in OCIO with 10 folds lower dose (2 kg/ha) than Fe-EDTA and FeSO4 (20 kg/ha). Moreover, the quality and storage longevity of the produce was remarkably superior in plants treated with the synthesized materials than conventionally used micronutrient salts (FeSO4, MnSO4, and CuSO4).

The Hon’ble President of India, Shri Ram Nath Kovind awarded the Gandhian Young Technological Innovation (BIRAC – GYTI) Award to Pallabi Das, Kasturi Sarmah,  Tezpur University, Assam at the GYTI 2018 Awards function held at Rashtrapati Bhawan on March 19, 2018.

Ekdeep Singh Lubana

SNAP – A RAW images’ based setup that can calculate nutrient concentration in leaves

Student of Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Ekdeep Singh Lubana won the award for developing a prototype of  SNAP – A RAW images’ based setup that can calculate nutrient concentration in leaves. He carried his project work under guidance of Prof. Dr. Maryam Shojaei Baghini.

Since long, efforts have been made for determining the concentration of nutrients in soil, which, thereafter, help in the calculation of required fertilizer content. However, the conventional methods incorporating chemical methodologies for soil testing have humongous limitations – finite number of samples can be tested in a given period of time (around 1000 samples per month); the amount of time required for the analysis can render the analysis obsolete; and, many-a-times, the analysis never reaches the farmer. All these issues put a stigma in a farmer’s mind, because of which he refrains from getting a soil analysis and uses a heuristic approach of 50kgs of fertilizer per hectare.

 

Such a methodology leads to acidification of soil, hampering the possible yield for the farmer. Due to over-fertilization, India faces an average ratio of 24:1 for N:P, whilst the ideal ratio is 4:1. Hence, our team has come up with SNAP, a handheld, patented device based on the principles of “Multispectral-Imaging” to capture images of a leaf at specific wavelengths, which have been optimally scrutinized and calculated for the specific purpose of determination of nitrogen concentration in a leaf. In a controlled environment (a minimal reflection apparatus with precisely-located illumination sources for constant geometry), modified GIS-based spectral parameters are correlated with leaf-nutrient content. We have expanded to further magnesium and potassium, and are currently concentrating on expansion to 6 more vital nutrients. SNAP helps tackle the aforementioned delay in the chemical analysis solution – all the while maintaining high levels of accuracy – by delivering a cost-effective, affordable technology that the farmer can use himself – hence making the farmer self-reliant.

The Hon’ble President of India, Shri Ram Nath Kovind awarded the Gandhian Young Technological Innovation (BIRAC – GYTI) Award to Ekdeep Singh Lubana, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay at the GYTI 2018 Awards function held at Rashtrapati Bhawan on March 19, 2018.