NOWAH (No Waste at Household) Technology – A novel, sustainable, smart and complete treatment technology for both faecal sludge and organic waste management

Students of Indian Institute of Technology Madras , Anu Rachel Thomas, Kaviyarasan R, Arya V, Praveen Rosario A won the award for research work of NOWAH (No Waste at Household) Technology – A novel, sustainable, smart and complete treatment technology for both faecal sludge and organic waste management. They carried their project work under guidance of  Prof. Ligy Philip.

Providing environmentally safe sanitation to the world’s second most populated nation is a challenging task. In India, the total sanitation coverage is 50% and in that only 12% have a piped sewerage connection. Majority of the households depends mainly on on-site wastewater treatment systems like septic tanks as their sole sanitation. Untreated septage disposal creates environmental degradation which mainly includes potential greenhouse gas emissions, percolation of emerging contaminants triggering water body contamination and also causes serious health threats as it contains millions of pathogens. In this context, our team has developed “NOWAH (No Waste at Household)” Technology – A novel, sustainable, smart and complete treatment technology for both faecal sludge and organic waste management. In this treatment system, fecal sludge containing both liquid and solid parts is separated initially at the separating chamber. Further the liquid effluent is biologically treated in an attached bioreactor (ABR) and the treated water can then be recycled for gardening. The dewatered solids will be conveyed to a composting chamber, where it will be cocomposted with organic waste from household. The final compost can then be used as a plant fertilizer. All these units are linked to one another and are underground concrete structures. The proper functioning of this system can be easily made using a cycle with gear mechanism fixed above ground. Thus, the proposed “NOWAH” technology aims at treating the faecal matter at the source where it is generated together with resource recovery in a sustainable and hygienic way. It is a closed loop system with zero power requirement. NOWAH technology can be easily adopted in any household and can even be scaled up for small communities.

Dr. Harsh Vardhan, Minister of Science and Technology, awarded the Gandhian Young Technological Innovation (GYTI) Appreciation to Anu Rachel Thomas, Kaviyarasan R, Arya V, Praveen Rosario A , Indian Institute of Technology Madras at the GYTI 2018 Awards function held at Rashtrapati Bhawan on March 19, 2018.

On Board Diagnostic Data Analysis System – OBDAS

Students of University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun, Archit Agarwal won the award for research work of On Board Diagnostic Data Analysis System – OBDAS. He carried his project work under guidance of  Dr. Rajesh Singh, Anita Gehlot.

OBDAS is a complete Automotive Electronics Solution that can be plug-in to any vehicle irrespective of the manufacture. Now through OBDAS vehicle’s valuable information is on cloud that is accessible to different communities that can make value out of it. It is capable fetch real time data about car with more than 200 parameters through more than 25 ECUS. It process data with developed algorithms and convert into the valuable information.

 Then analyzed and upload information to the secure cloud server of the dedicated end-user’s vehicle. OBDAS is divided into two parts one is OBDAS BlackBox under the steering wheel which fetch, process and upload vehicle information to the cloud server and other is OBDAS Notifier over the dashboard which notifies in real time about the car performance to the end-users OBDAS making values to different communities Segment 1 Car owner · End user alerted in real Time about their car Diagnostic and overall performance through OBDAS Notifier · Notifies emergency services as soon as accident is detected with more than 95% accuracy based upon airbags and other parameters Segment 2 Automobiles companies · These companies can analyze and improve their manufactured car better than before by tracking their customer performance through OBDAS · They can now provide real time service to their customer about car the maintenance · OBDAS give the availability for customization with respect to parameters. Auto-Insurance Companies · Now, These companies can get telematics about history of their customer car · Capable to have accurate decision with respect to insurance policies based upon their customer car history · Can improve their business financially.

Dr. Harsh Vardhan, Minister of Science and Technology, awarded the Gandhian Young Technological Innovation (GYTI) Appreciation to Archit Agarwal, University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun at the GYTI 2018 Awards function held at Rashtrapati Bhawan on March 19, 2018.

SIT: Smell Your Health

Students of Shri Vishnu Engineering College for Women, Andhra Pradesh, Srilekha Pilla, Jyothi Chinta, Dr. M. Mohan Varma won the award for research work of SIT: Smell Your Health. They carried their project work under guidance of  Dr. Pushpa Kotipalli.

A neurological disorder is a disease that involves the brain and nervous system. There are many types of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and migraines. The World Health Organization reports that there are millions of people around the world suffer from neurological disorders. Around 24 million people suffer from Alzheimer’s disease and 326 million people suffer from migraines. Similarly, there are around 70 out of 10,000 people suffering with Parkinson’s disease in India. People met with accidents may get neurological disorders which may not be identified immediately. Detection in the early stage is very important to stop the progress of all these neurological disorders. Olfactory dysfunction is the early stage symptom to many of the neurological disorders. Here olfactory dysfunction refers to partial or complete smell loss. If a person notices symptoms like frequent headaches, blurry vision, fatigue, numbness in the legs or arms, physical imbalance, muscle weakness, slurred speech or tremors, he needs to take Smell Identification Test (SIT). If the person fails in the SIT, he should seek immediate help of professional medical practitioner. Existing SITs are not user friendly. We propose user friendly SIT. Mechanical setup of the tester is designed in such a way that oil bottles used with SIT can be accessed easily. The person under test has to identify the smell of the scent from the oil bottle. Answer booklet is provided in their preferred language. Depending on the number of correct answers, the person’s smell identification capability can be assessed which in turn helps in early detection of neurological disorders. Our current innovation is user friendly in terms of operation, language, size, portability, and cost.

Dr. Harsh Vardhan, Minister of Science and Technology, awarded the Gandhian Young Technological Innovation (GYTI) Appreciation to Srilekha Pilla, Jyothi Chinta, Dr. M. Mohan Varma , Shri Vishnu Engineering College for Women, Andhra Pradesh at the GYTI 2018 Awards function held at Rashtrapati Bhawan on March 19, 2018.

Smartphone based portable low-cost continuous wave Doppler Ultrasound system

Students of Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Biswabandhu Jana, Rakesh Biswas, Pallab Nath won the award for research work of Smartphone based portable low-cost continuous wave Doppler Ultrasound system. They carried their project work under guidance of  Prof. Swapna Banerjee, Dr. Goutam Saha. 

The Peripheral arterial disease is an important cause of morbidity and affected almost 202 million people worldwide in 2010. A high end medical diagnostic system in rural healthcare units is not available due to its high cost. So, an attempt has been made to design a portable, low cost, smartphone based, continuous wave Doppler Ultrasound System for common people. The designed Ultrasound system consists of three major blocks, viz., Analog Front End (AFE), Signal Processing Block (SPB), and User Interface Block (UIB). In AFE, a pencil probe of 8 MHz is positioned on the artery to receive the backscattered signal and a tuned RF amplifier followed by an envelope detector is used to extract the Doppler shifted signal. The de-modulated signal is digitized for sending to the SBP module. The SBP is a Microblaze soft core processor based embedded system where processing is performed in an FPGA. The UIB displays spectrogram in real time and transfers to mobile through Bluetooth. Next, a smartphone application has been developed for further analysis. Android application removes the noise from the spectrogram and extracts clinically important blood flow features. A machine learning algorithm has been implemented in the smartphone for identifying the normal and abnormal condition. UNIQUE FEATURES – Diagnosis of arterial diseases by assessing the inconsistent blood flow in the peripheral arteries. – Detection of the exact zone of aortic obstruction. – Determine the normal and abnormal condition in an automated way. – The blood flow image can be sent to the doctors. – Abnormalities in an arterial system can be diagnosed by changing only transducer probe. – Detect Korotkoff sound for blood pressure measurement.

Dr. Harsh Vardhan, Minister of Science and Technology, awarded the Gandhian Young Technological Innovation (GYTI) Appreciation to Biswabandhu Jana, Rakesh Biswas, Pallab Nath , Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur at the GYTI 2018 Awards function held at Rashtrapati Bhawan on March 19, 2018.

An indigenous technology for development of cost-effective and energy-efficient engine intake air filters

Students of Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Ajay Kumar Maddineni won the award for research work of An indigenous technology for development of cost-effective and energy-efficient engine intake air filters. He carried their project work under guidance of  Dr. Dipayan Das.

In automotives, the packing space in vehicular under-hood is shrinking day-by-day at a faster rate with the evolving engine technology. This limits the filtration area available for engine air filters, which causes an increase in local velocity of the airborne particles approaching to the filter media.

 As a result, the particles acquire higher kinetic energy that facilitates them to bounce back from filter surface, re-entrain into air stream, and finally penetrate through the filter media. This ultimately results in higher particle penetration and lower engine life. In the current innovation, an indegeneous and cost-effective solution is provided to the above-mentioned problems associated with the engine intake air filters. A compact engine intake air filter system is designed for motorcycles and the same is analyzed for air flow and particle filtration behaviors. The air filter system consists of a fibrous filter media, which, upon optimal impingement of viscous liquid, exhibits enhanced filtration performance by inhibiting particle bounce and re-entrainment. Further, because of the presence of the viscous films, a large number of dust particles get accumulated onto the air filters. Also, the dust particles are deposited quite uniformly onto the surface of chemically-treated air filters, unlike the untreated air filters where the dust particles form dendritic structures. As a result, the pressure-drop and service life of chemically-treated air filters are found to be superior to untreated ones. Consequently, the air filters developed in this work are likely to offer increased service life by 1.5-1.8 times, decreased fuel consumption by 20 litre and reduced CO2 emission by 50 kg per motorcycle for a ride of 12000 km before replacement of the filters.

 

Dr. Harsh Vardhan, Minister of Science and Technology, awarded the Gandhian Young Technological Innovation (GYTI) Appreciation to Ajay Kumar Maddineni , Indian Institute of Technology Delhi at the GYTI 2018 Awards function held at Rashtrapati Bhawan on March 19, 2018.

Detection of hydrocarbons by Laser Assisted Paper Spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (LAPSI MS)

Students of Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Pallab Basuri, Depanjan Sarkar won the award for research work of Detection of hydrocarbons by Laser Assisted Paper Spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry(LAPSI MS). They carried their project work under guidance of  Prof. Thalappil Pradeep.

We have introduced a new ambient ionization technique named ‘Laser Assisted Paper Spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry’ (LAPSI MS). In LAPSI MS, a 532 nm ≤10 mW pen torch laser pointer was shown to a triangular paper along with high voltage to enhance the paper spray ionization. The analyte solution was continuously pushed through a fused silica capillary, using a syringe pump, at a preferred infusion rate. LAPSI MS promises enhanced ionization with high signal intensity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are normally not ionizable with other mass spectrometric techniques. LAPSI MS works both in positive and negative modes of ionization. A clear enhancement of signal intensity was visualized in the total ion chromatogram for an analyte in presence of the laser. 

 

We speculate that the mechanism of ionization is field assisted photoionization. The field-induced distortion of the potential well can be large in paper spray as the fibers constituting the paper are separated at tens of nanometers apart and consequently the analyte molecules are subjected to very large electric fields. LAPSI MS can be used for monitoring in situ photo-assisted reactions like, the decarboxylation of mercaptobenzoic acid in presence of gold and silver nanoparticles and dehydrogenation reaction of 2,3-dihydro-1Hisoindole, for example. As an application we have shown that the paraffin oil which is usually non ionizable by paper spray or by electrospray ionization can be efficiently detected using this technique. As a real life application, such impurities like mineral oils were detected in commercially available coconut oil.

Dr. Harsh Vardhan, Minister of Science and Technology, awarded the Gandhian Young Technological Innovation (GYTI) Appreciation to Pallab Basuri, Depanjan Sarkar, Indian Institute of Technology Madras at the GYTI 2018 Awards function held at Rashtrapati Bhawan on March 19, 2018.

Augmentative Rehabilitation of SCI and Stroke Patients

Student of CSIR, Chandigarh, Kashif Islam Khan Sherwani won the award for research work of Augmentative Rehabilitation of SCI and Stroke Patients. She carried her project work under guidance of Dr. Neelesh Kumar.

According to World Health Organisation, 15 percent of world’s population have some sort of disability. But only 7 percent of the world’s population has access to physical medicine and rehabilitation. Lack of quality physiotherapists and awareness about specialized rehabilitation care makes this situation worse and that too is limited to tier 2 cities in India. Spinal Cord Injury, Cerebral Palsy, Parkinson’s disease are few chronic diseases that require continuous rehabilitation, but the patients are not able to visit rehabilitation clinic regularly because of distance and/or cost issues. Because of this reason patients’ start losing interest. If still, they try to visit the therapist, it becomes very monotonous of doing same traditional exercises and does not get any motivation and feedback to track their daily progress.The solution for the above problem is the augmentative rehabilitation that includes virtual reality therapy system that stimulates training of neuromotor movements, houses a wide array of abilities, delivers a simple way for physicians to track usage, and could be used at home and primary health centers. VR technologies offer new space for human exploration, understanding, and support by providing patients a safe environment in which they can interact and develop a goal and taskoriented activities within functional-virtual environments, especially when they find themselves in situations of cognitive, behavioural or motor disabilities. The solutions built from these technologies reduce patient’s limitations of activity and participation by promoting the recovery of functional motor abilities stemming the emerging philosophy of rehabilitation.

Dr. Harsh Vardhan, Minister of Science and Technology, awarded the Gandhian Young Technological Innovation (GYTI) Appreciation to Kashif Islam Khan Sherwani , CSIR, Chandigarh at the GYTI 2018 Awards function held at Rashtrapati Bhawan on March 19, 2018.

TULO – An Automated Mandibular Advancement Device for the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Student of Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Vimal C won the award for research work of TULO – An Automated Mandibular Advancement Device for the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea. He carried her project work under guidance of Prof. Dr. J. Ramkumar.

Obstructive sleep apnea is a sleeping disorder that affects about five percent of adults. Sleep apnea is a condition in which the airway in your throat collapses when you sleep, so the muscles relax. If this collapse is constant, it causes apnea or simply said absence of breath. If the collapse is not constant, usually causes snoring. The long term consequences of having obstructive sleep apnea are high blood pressure, sleepiness, headaches and risk of heart attack or stroke. Mandibular advancement devices have mouth guard that is fitted to both top and bottom teeth and joined together in a way that bottom teeth are in front of the top teeth. Pushing the bottom jaw forward opens up and supports the airway, so there is less chance to collapse. Mandibular advancement devices are the oral appliance used to treat snoring and obstructive sleep apnea. These devices protrude the mandible and induce changes in the anterior position of the tongue, soft palate, lateral pharyngeal walls, and mandible, resulting in improved airway patency. Evidence suggests that MAD improves snoring and OSA. Extent of advancement in MAD enhance efficacy in reducing upper airway obstruction events but it also increases temporomandibular joint pain, myofascial pain, occlusal changes and anxiety and stress of the patient. Usage of a MAD device however requires some precision adjustment and frequent visit with the physician thus induces a lot of ambiguity to the user. Hence we have developed an automated MAD device in two specific advancement platforms. One is a time dependent mandibular advancement while the other is advancement of the mandible with respect to oxygen desaturation levels in the body through a wearable band.

Dr. Harsh Vardhan, Minister of Science and Technology, awarded the Gandhian Young Technological Innovation (GYTI) Appreciation to Vimal C, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur at the GYTI 2018 Awards function held at Rashtrapati Bhawan on March 19, 2018.

Katha-Exploration of narrative approach in furniture design

Students of Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur , Ritika Singh won the award for research work of Katha-Exploration of narrative approach in furniture design. She carried her project work under guidance of Dr. Koumudi Patil.

Katha aims to foster creative problem solving, causal thinking and articulate communication skills in children through a narrative playlearning aid. This play-aid is a responsible and sustainable product, designed for manufacturing by craftspeople (Banarasi wooden toymakers) in an additional effort to integrate the neglected craft sector with a contemporary educational need for creative pedagogies. Katha attempts to link the lacunae in our education system with the needs of our craft sector. Therefore, the board game has been designed for manufacturability in the craft sector and not through a machine. The turned characters as well as the wooden board and painted motifs can be made best by hand. The size of the pegs, threading, and form of characters have been decided based on the turning device used by the Banarasi wooden toymakers. Thus, this is design for craft manufacturability. The idea is not to mass produce but create limited editions of high value. Katha consists of multiple narrative trajectories that can be constructed into myriad stories that encourage the child’s critical abilities to juxtapose the causal connections into a coherent whole. It encourages the lateral thinking hat of the child and emboldens him to create his own path rather than follow a prefixed trajectory. It also playfully introduces the child to our cultural heritage hidden deep in our ethics.

Dr. Harsh Vardhan, Minister of Science and Technology, awarded the Gandhian Young Technological Innovation (GYTI) Appreciation to Ritika Singh , Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur at the GYTI 2018 Awards function held at Rashtrapati Bhawan on March 19, 2018.

Loco pilot vision enhancement system: TRINETRA (Third Eye) for Indian Railways

Students of Indian Institute of Technology BHU, Varanasi, Anand Kumar K. S., Gurupadappa Motagi, Ravindran R won the award for research work of Loco pilot vision enhancement system: TRINETRA (Third Eye) for Indian Railways. She carried her project work under guidance of Prof. (Dr.) R. K. Saket.

Indian Railway provides the most important mode of public transport in India. It is the most commonly used and cost effective long distance transport system of the country. Indian Railways is also helping Indian economy in many ways like by providing fast and reliable transport medium for various needy articles across the country. The railways are suffering revenue losses due to cancellation or late running of passenger trains as a result of foggy weather conditions especially in the northern India fog-prone regions. In last five years the Indian railways has lost in access of Indian rupees 1.5 lakh crores due to cancellation of trains, and delay in running trains. Considering its importance, this project work TRINETRA – the third eye to prevent railway accidents in India, has been researched and dedicated to Bharat Ratna Madan Mohan Malaviya Chair at IIT-BHU for railway research. It marks the centenary celebrations of Banaras Hindu University. TRINETRA is expanded as “Technological Research and Invention for National Empowerment of Trains to Reduce Accidents”. In Hindi, the word TRINETRA means ‘Third Eye’. Equipped with zoom able visual and thermal sensor TRINETRA will be fixed on the front portion of the engine (Loco-motive). It will effectively catch a long range view of the track and present it live on a mini screen (smart phone) fixed at the loco pilot’s cabin. They can see the long range of the track on screen. The sensor and screen will be interfaced through OTG or Wi-Fi. TRINETRA an indigenous camera system is an outcome of our efforts to address the current operational visibility issues faced by the loco pilots during odd weather conditions especially fog & rain.

Dr. Harsh Vardhan, Minister of Science and Technology, awarded the Gandhian Young Technological Innovation (GYTI) Appreciation to Anand Kumar K. S., Gurupadappa Motagi, Ravindran R , Indian Institute of Technology BHU, Varanasi at the GYTI 2018 Awards function held at Rashtrapati Bhawan on March 19, 2018.

Cerium Impregnated Activated Carbon Composite as a Filtering Material for Fluoride Removal from Groundwater

Students of Indian Institute of Technology Patna, Mahipal, Hasan Ahmed Faisal won the award for research work of Cerium Impregnated Activated Carbon Composite as a Filtering Material for Fluoride Removal from Groundwater. They carried her project work under guidance of Dr. Trishikhi Raychoudhury.

Groundwater Contamination with fluoride (F-) is a major concern due to its chronic behavior on human health. In India, specific region of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh are severely affected by Fcontamination. To address this issue, there is a need to investigate for cost effective, efficient and environmental friendly technology focused primarily on F-removal from groundwater.There are only a few studies available that focus on removal of F- from natural groundwater.

 Therefore, to address this issue, several groundwater samples were collected from the Nagaur district of Rajasthan and with an objective to remove F- from the groundwater samples using a novel composite (AC-Ce). In this study, cerium metal was impregnated within granular activated carbon(AC-Ce) to increase its adsorption capacity. The study suggests impregnation of Ce in AC has enhanced the fluoride sorption efficiency significantly (0.27 mg/g to 2.9 mg/g). Sorption of F- and along with ion-exchange between nitrate and F- are attributed to high F- removal by the ACCe composite.The performance of the composite within a 1-D fixed bed column was studied to investigate the suitability of applying the composite in a filter. Effects of co-ions are also evaluated on fluoride removal by the composite. The result suggests, AC-Ce composite in fixed bed filter media can treat up to 722 ml of 10 mg/l Fcontaminated water. However, performance of composite reduces significantly in natural groundwater. This is due to presence of phosphate and bicarbonate ions competing with F- for active sites on the composite. Suitable pretreatment method should be adopted for addressing this problem.

Dr. Harsh Vardhan, Minister of Science and Technology, awarded the Gandhian Young Technological Innovation (GYTI) Appreciation to Mahipal, Hasan Ahmed Faisal, Indian Institute of Technology Patna at the GYTI 2018 Awards function held at Rashtrapati Bhawan on March 19, 2018.