Dual action of SPIONS in effective removal of heavy metals and mosquito larvae from water.

Student of Sathyabama Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai, Roshini S. M., Karthika M.and Lavanya Agnes Angalene J. won the award for a Dual action of SPIONS in effective removal of heavy metals and mosquito larvae from water. They carried their project work under the guidance of Dr. Antony V Samrot.

Water is vital for all known forms of life. Due to industrialization and improper effluent disposal, the natural water bodies in many parts of our country are alarmingly contaminated with heavy metals like Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, As, Pb and Zn which are well known for their toxic impact to environment and human health. In the case of mosquitoes, it is reported that the presence of heavy metals enhances the breeding potency thus supporting the outbreak of various life-threatening diseases like malaria, chikungunya, yellow fever and dengue. Here with the support of Nanotechnology, a commercially available larvicide is used to eradicate the mosquito larvae as well as effectively remove the heavy metals from its breeding platform, water. Super Paramagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs) are employed as the core carrier molecules which are nanoformulated to achieve the dual action.

Chemically synthesized SPIONs are surface modified and tagged with a commercially available larvicide, further encapsulation was performed using a biopolymer. The biopolymer encapsulation of the tagged-SPIONs helped the nanoformulation to accomplish stability and also offer biocompatibility. The biopolymer and SPIONs help in the heavy metal removal and eventually the tagged larvicide exhibit its lethal action against the target, mosquito larvae. Since SPIONs are magnetic nanoparticles, the application of magnetic field eases the removal of both SPIONs incorporated dead larvae and the targeted heavy metal after treatment. This action not only minimizes the release of larvicide in water but also removes the targeted heavy metals and mosquito larvae, thus making the water favourable for use. The ultimate goal of this innovation is to design a unit in association with conventional water treatment filters to bring out the aforementioned dual action and ensure the supply of heavy metal free and larvae free water

The Hon’ble Vice President of India, Shri M. Venkaiah Naidu awarded the Gandhian Young Technological Innovation (GYTI) Award to Roshini S. M., Karthika M. and Lavanya Agnes Angalene J. Sathyabama Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai at the GYTI 2019 Awards function held at Vigyan Bhawan, New Delhi on July 06, 2019.

Non-catalytic deep desulfurization process using hydrodynamic cavitation

Student of CSIR-National Chemical Laboratory, Pune (CIR-NCL), Nalinee B. Suryawanshi won the award for a non-catalytic deep desulfurization process using hydrodynamic cavitation. They carried their project work under the guidance of Dr Vinay M. Bhandari.

Deep desulphurization of various organics, in general, and transportation fuels, in particular, is a demanding operation, especially from pollution point of view. In this work, a green approach is undertaken for desulfurization of fuels or organics without the use of catalyst or external chemicals/reagents/oxidizing agent using a simple methodology of hydrodynamic cavitation. The process involves pre-programmed mixing of the organic and aqueous phases and can be carried out using simple mechanical cavitating devices such as vortex diode (patented by our group) and orifice. Three organic solvents (n-octane, toluene and n-octanol) containing a known amount of a model sulphur compound (thiophene) up to initial concentrations of 500 ppm were used to verify the proposed method. Very high removal of sulfur content to the extent of 100% was demonstrated. The results were also verified and substantiated using commercial diesel as a solvent. The nature of the organic phase and the ratio of aqueous to organic phase were found to be the most important process parameters.

The developed process has great potential for deep desulfurization of various organics, in general, and for transportation fuels, in particular. The estimated operating cost of  desulfurization using hydrodynamic cavitation is far lower than the present refinery hydrodesulphurization process and adsorptive desulfurization process. The aqueous phase used in the proposed method can be recycled after removing a purge stream (with corresponding make-up water). The process offers many advantages, most importantly ease of operation and mild operating conditions for effective sulphur removal. The proposed method can be effectively implemented for large scale deep desulphurization operations.

The Hon’ble Vice President of India, Shri M. Venkaiah Naidu awarded the Gandhian Young Technological Innovation (GYTI) Award to Nalinee B. Suryawanshi CSIR-National Chemical Laboratory, Pune (CIR-NCL) at the GYTI 2019 Awards function held at Vigyan Bhawan, New Delhi on July 06, 2019.

Utilisation of Real-World Waste Plastic for the Production of Fuel Range Liquid Hydrocarbons using Two-step approach

Student of Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, Uma Dwivedi won the award for a Utilisation of Real-World Waste Plastic for the Production of Fuel Range Liquid Hydrocarbons using a Two-step approach. They carried their project work under the guidance of Prof. K. K. Pant, Prof. S. K. Naik.

A large amount of waste plastics is being generated because of the accessible properties of the plastics. However, due to lack of efficient end-of-life management in many developing countries; plastics are now posing serious threats to the environment and human health due to its non-biodegradable nature. Liquid fuel formation through thermo-catalytic cracking can provide a good platform for the energy recovery by making use of dumped plastics. The process involves designing an improved two-stage batch reactor system, an effort for the replacement of petro-diesel compounds which covers the synthesis of highly active heterogeneously modified zeolite that supports the catalysts for effective breakdown of waste plastic. The developed two-step approach leads to the 100% conversion of waste plastic into value-added products comprising 60 to 80% liquids, and 20 to 35% gases at a temperature range of 300-350°C.

The results suggest that the carbon chain length was narrowed to C 5 -C 28 when the zeolite catalysts were employed, as well as the significant yield of a controlled fraction of paraffins, olefins and aromatics,  was obtained indicating that the obtained liquids are fuel-like products. The liquid fuel formed is expected to be an effective renewable fuel as supported with the comparable results of GC-MS, 1 H and C 13 NMR, Heating value, Proximate analysis, etc. which can be used as an alternative source of fuel for the IC engine operation. However, the usage of the developed catalyst shows the added advantages of reducing the cracking temperature as well as tailoring the selectivity. Eventually, it should be noted that the negative impacts of waste plastics could be addressed or minimized by recognizing the fact that waste plastics have great potential for resource conservation when converted into a valuable resource.

The Hon’ble Vice President of India, Shri M. Venkaiah Naidu awarded the Gandhian Young Technological Innovation (GYTI) Award to Uma Dwivedi Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi at the GYTI 2019 Awards function held at Vigyan Bhawan, New Delhi on July 06, 2019.

Development of Rapid and Non-destructive Method for Detection of Insect Infestation in Stored Cereal Grains

Student of Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, Gayatri Mishra and Ranjana Rani won the award for research work of Development of Rapid and Non-destructive Method for Detection of Insect Infestation in Stored Cereal Grains. They carried their project work under the guidance of Dr H N Mishra and Shubhangi Srivastava.

India is the second-largest producer of cereal crops in the world but, with the existing facilities, negligible part contributes to post-harvest losses. In this aspect, insect infestation is an alarming concern, accounting for losses in quality as well as quantity. A major portion of the post-harvest losses can be saved by detecting the insects in their early developmental stages and subsequent application of suitable disinfestation approach is undertaken for their control. The current scenario demands rapid methods for insect detection, which can take a lead over conventional methods, on the ground of promptness, usability, non-destructiveness, affordability of start-up cost, and implementation feasibility beyond the laboratory domain. In this study, rapid methods were developed using Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy (FTNIR), electronic nose (E-nose), and hyperspectral imaging techniques.

The methods were then statistically compared to select the most suitable technology for the development of a portable sensor assembly for detection of insect infestation of stored cereal grains (i.e. rice, wheat, and maize). E-nose was chosen among the various techniques and the experimental findings were adapted for the development of a low-cost portable sensor. Based on the findings, alcohol and ammonia sensors were integrated with a microcontroller unit to fabricate the sensor assembly, which was effective enough to detect the level of infestation based on the headspace gas composition. The outcome of the project will lead to a convenient, rapid yet nondestructive approach for quality determination of insect-infested cereal grains at various stages during the storage. The sensor will be a boon for developing countries like India to rapidly detect the infestation precisely and support the ideology “saving a grain is producing a grain”.

The Hon’ble Vice President of India, Shri M. Venkaiah Naidu awarded the Gandhian Young Technological Innovation (GYTI) Award to Gayatri Mishra, Ranjana Rani  Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur at the GYTI 2019 Awards function held at Vigyan Bhawan, New Delhi on July 06, 2019.

Image Analyzing Drying Patterns of Blood And Plasma Droplets For The Rapid Detection of Thalassaemia Carriers

Students of Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, Manikuntala Mukhopadhyay and Rudra Ray won the award for a research work of Image Analyzing Drying Patterns of Blood And Plasma Droplets For The Rapid Detection of Thalassaemia Carriers. They carried her project work under the guidance of Prof. Sunando DasGupta and Prof. Maitreyee Bhattacharya.

Thalassaemia is one of the most common single-gene disorder in which the production of haemoglobin is impaired. This autosomal recessive disorder is highly prevalent in Indian populations accounting to ~10% of the world’s thalassaemia carriers. The beta-thalassaemia carrier state resulting from a heterozygous mutation in the beta-globin gene is clinically asymptomatic and thus remain undiagnosed. At present, the gold standard method that is used for carrier detection in hospitals requires expensive instruments, skilled manpower and time, thus, making it difficult to be used as an onsite method. A rapid, portable and automated technology for thalassaemia carrier screening is hence of significant importance. The present study has conclusively proven the distinct patterns observed on the drying of whole blood droplets for carrier and normal samples. Length of the radial cracks is significantly shorter for carrier samples as compared to normal ones. A sample whose average crack length is less than 800 microns can be classified as a carrier sample, whereas the ones with larger radial cracks are considered as normal. Identifying the carrier samples by this image analysis technique gave zero false-negative results.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

These patterns can be further utilized to create a databank for automated classification of carrier samples, by employing appropriate techniques from computational pattern recognition and deep learning. The proposed method will examine the images of dried blood drops, extract its distinctive features and categorize as normal or carrier samples by comparing it with reference images stored in a databank. This automated process will remarkably increase the number of the total population screened for thalassaemia per year in the country and will reduce the burden on the state-run advanced health facilities along with a significant reduction in costs incurred for a screening of each sample.

The Hon’ble Vice President of India, Shri M. Venkaiah Naidu awarded the Gandhian Young Technological Innovation (GYTI) Award to Manikuntala Mukhopadhyay and Rudra Ray, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur at the GYTI 2019 Awards function held at Vigyan Bhawan, New Delhi on July 06, 2019.

Actin Mimetic ATP Driven Controlled Supramolecular Polymerization

Student of Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Ananya Mishra won the award for a research work of Actin Mimetic ATP Driven Controlled Supramolecular Polymerization. She carried her project work under the guidance of Prof. Subi J. George.

The need of supramolecular systems with increased complexity and structural control is growing in the direction of intriguing functions similar to their biological analogues like DNA and cells. The question, “How far can we push self-assembly?” is recognized as one of the biggest-challenges in supramolecular material science. This work describes a synthetic organic molecule, oligophenylene vinylene functionalized with dipicolyl ethylene diamine (OPVDPA), coming together and stacking on each other in a helical sense on electrostatic interaction with a biological cue, ATP.

This process is very close to events occurring in nature that notably help a cell to maintain its shape, i.e. actin, which undergoes ATP driven temporal polymerization and dynamic instability. The study has come closest in synthetically mimicking this natural process. We have employed the facets of supramolecular chemistry as the area of investigation in this study, which deals with the interplay of non-covalent interactions for self-assembly. Though in synthetic systems it is a fairly new field, most biological processes function are based on these principles. In this context, systems driven by ATP became an inspiration for the team to work further. These systems are uniquely size-controlled over kinetic regimes which allow fascinating stimuli responsiveness and adaptability that could not have been achieved in synthetic systems before. Since the stimulus, in this case, is one of the most ubiquitously present chemicals such as ATP, therefore the study is a benchmark for what can be achieved synthetically. Furthermore as mentioned earlier the prospect of functional accessibility also makes the work more interesting.

The Hon’ble Vice President of India, Shri M. Venkaiah Naidu awarded the Gandhian Young Technological Innovation (GYTI) Award to Ananya Mishra, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research at the GYTI 2019 Awards function held at Vigyan Bhawan, New Delhi on July 06, 2019.

Pneumatic Damping Prosthetic Leg For Above-knee Amputees

Students of MES College of Engineering, Kuttipuram, Muhammed Janish and Abhijitnath won the award for a Pneumatic Damping Prosthetic Leg For Above-knee Amputees. They carried her project work under the guidance of Prof. Padmakumar K.

The prime focus of the project is to design cost-effective feedback based on the prosthetic leg for above-knee amputees. Currently, the majority of amputees in India depend on functionally low mechanical legs like Uni-axial knee, ReMotion knee, Jaipur limb, etc. As the cost of a high functional feedback-based leg is around 70000 dollars, therefore, mechanical prosthesis like Uniaxial Knee, ReMotion limb restricts to locks which transfer the load to the ground. The major default of the currently available prosthetics lies in the restricted application, where the patient cannot use it in a bent position when the load is acting normal to the ground, as the lock won’t be working and the patient will stumble.

Also, mechanical legs won’t give any walking assistance as they only provided support & drains more energy. A proportional solenoid valve has been incorporated to control the pneumatic damping system in a mechanical knee. Force sensor at the foot detects the pressure applied by the amputee and adjust the damping resistance at the knee which enables the proposed device to lock the knee joint at any angle and position correspondingly so the amputee can transfer the load to the ground even in a bent position of the leg. Compressed air inside the pistons absorb shock during the stance phase of walking and provide walking assistance during starting of the swing phase of walking and all these applications draw less energy.

The Hon’ble Vice President of India, Shri M. Venkaiah Naidu awarded the Gandhian Young Technological Innovation (GYTI) Award to Muhammed Janish and Abhijitnath MES College of Engineering, Kuttipuram at the GYTI 2019 Awards function held at Vigyan Bhawan, New Delhi on July 06, 2019.

Patient-specific spheroid-on-chip for cancer treatment: combinatory drug screening

Student of Indian Institute of Technology, Hyderabad, Sharanya Sankar and Viraj Mehta won the award for a Patient-specific spheroid-on-chip for cancer treatment: combinatory drug screening. They carried their project work under the guidance of Dr Subha Narayan Rath.

Screening tumor biopsies from cancer patients and finding the appropriate drug combinations to treat the disease at various stages has been a challenge owing to the failure of the in-vitro cancer models to recapitulate the native tissue microenvironment of tumors. The prominence of this work lies in the development of a personalized healthcare set-up for cancer diagnostics and treatment for a patient-specific tumor sample. We have developed a microfluidic platform with strategically placed U-shaped wells for screening the combinatory effect of drugs on tumor spheroids. Also, the optimal flow conditions similar to the in-vivo flow regimes have been simulated. This set-up has inlet ports to provide a continuous flow of media through it to mimic the tumor microenvironment in-vivo. The outlet ports would prevent the back-flow of the excess fluid and maintain the flow conditions inside the wells. The platform allows self-formation of tumor spheroids on passing the cancer cells through the inlet port. Due to the continuous flow of media, the conditions in the well would not be static as compared to the existing models and provide physiologically relevant data with accurate predictive results. Further, the chip can be re-used by sterilizing it through simple techniques making it cost-effective and affordable. Hence, patient-specific tumor samples can be tested in the chip paving a way to create personalized profiling of drugs and their concentration for the treatment. Till date, standard drug treatments are administered to patients suffering from cancer irrespective of their conditions. This system would be a customized set-up to treat individual patients for their specific conditions. This would be a quick and effective approach in treating the fast progressing life-threatening disease. This innovation would be an invaluable step for developing an affordable healthcare set-up for cancer diagnostics and treatment.

The Hon’ble Vice President of India, Shri M. Venkaiah Naidu awarded the Gandhian Young Technological Innovation (GYTI) Award to Sharanya Sankar and Viraj Mehta Indian Institute of Technology, Hyderabad at the GYTI 2019 Awards function held at Vigyan Bhawan, New Delhi on July 06, 2019.

Real Time Surrogate Visual Tracking of Lung Tumours for Effective Radiotherapy

Student of Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, Priya Singh, Darshan Ramesh Shet won the award for research work ofReal Time Surrogate Visual Tracking of Lung Tumours for Effective Radiotherapy. They carried their project work under the guidance of Prof. Venkatesh K Subramanian.

A cost-efficient solution to improve the accuracy of radiotherapy given to lung cancer patients. Radiotherapy is a common recourse for treating lung tumors, being considerably more localised than chemotherapy. It, however, faces the challenge of maintaining the focus of the radiation beam on the tumor. Due to physiological factors like respiratory motion, peristaltic motion, cardiac motion, coughing etc, the tumor and its surrounding tissue inside the thorax or abdomen can move dynamically, with a displacement of up to 3 cm. The result of such movement, if ignored during radiotherapy, is the exposure of surrounding healthy tissue and organs, causing severe damage to them.

This research provides a solution by real-time surrogate visual tracking of lung tumours in all the phases during radiotherapy. To achieve a precision simultaneous acquisition of two types of data was done for visual chest surface data and x-ray data of the tumour. To perform visual surface tracking, an array of 4 cameras in conjunction with an adequate number of visible markers were implemented to capture the time evolution of the surface motion. The x-ray tracking of the tumour is performed using a CT scanner. Using the time synchronised x-ray and visual surface tracking data sets, we have built a time and space correlation model of the surface of the chest with the x-ray tracker data using Machine Learning. The patient can be subjected to radiotherapy with beam steering (currently used in hospitals) directed by the surrogate measurements from the correlation model that we have developed. This provides a more accurate, and less expensive method to maintain the radiation focus than the standards used today. Any innovation in the medical field demands extensive trials before adoption. We are seeking the cooperation of SGPGI, Lucknow to provide the infrastructure and subjects for the calibration step.

The Hon’ble Vice President of India, Shri M. Venkaiah Naidu awarded the Gandhian Young Technological Innovation (GYTI) Award to Priya Singh, Darshan Ramesh Shet, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur at the GYTI 2019 Awards function held at Vigyan Bhawan, New Delhi on July 06, 2019.