Early Diagnosis of Osteoporosis Using Metacarpal Radiogrammetry and Texture Analysis

Student of National Institute of Technology, Surathkal (NIT), Anu Shaju Areeckal won the award for a Early Diagnosis of Osteoporosis Using Metacarpal Radiogrammetry And Texture Analysis. They carried their project work under the guidance of Prof. Sumam David S.

Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by a reduction in bone mass and micro-structure, causing a high risk to fragility fractures. The gold standard diagnostic technique for osteoporosis, Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA), is expensive and not widely available in India. We developed a low cost prescreening tool for early diagnosis of osteoporosis using hand and wrist radiographs. Automated segmentation method for extraction of third metacarpal bone and distal radius is developed. Cortical radiogrammetry of third metacarpal bone and texture analysis of distal radius is done and the most significant features are used to train classifiers. The pre-screening tool is validated using 138 subjects from the Indian sample population. The segmentation method shows a detection accuracy of 89% and 93.5% for the third metacarpal bone shaft and distal radius, respectively.

The trained artificial neural network (ANN) classifier achieves the best test accuracy of over 90.0%. A linear regression model shows a significant correlation of 0.671 with DXA. A novel low-cost technique to measure cortical bone volume using three dimensional (3D) reconstruction of metacarpal bone is also developed from hand radiographs in three views. Projections of the 3D reconstructed models are compared with manually segmented X-ray images of 20 subjects. The mean error percentage in combined with cortical thickness is 11.2%. The pre-screening tool is a promising technique to identify people with low bone mass and will enable mass screening of people in primary health centres in non- urban areas where DXA is unavailable. This work is done in collaboration with Kasturba Medical College (KMC) Hospital, Mangalore, India and University Hospital of Geneva, Switzerland. The study protocol was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee, KMC Hospital, Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, India.

The Hon’ble Vice President of India, Shri M. Venkaiah Naidu awarded the Gandhian Young Technological Innovation (GYTI) Award to Anu Shaju Areeckal National Institute of Technology, Surathkal (NIT) at the GYTI 2019 Awards function held at Vigyan Bhawan, New Delhi on July 06, 2019.

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