Pyrophosphate and Metaphosphate as Next-generation Cathode Material for Energy Storage Devices

Students of Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore Ritambhara Gond, Krishnakanth Sada, Anshuman Chaupatnaik won the award for a Pyrophosphate and Metaphosphate as Next-generation Cathode Material for Energy Storage Devices. They carried their project work under the guidance of Prof. Prabeer Barpanda

These days it is very common to see portable electronics everywhere and soon petrol and diesel vehicles need to be replaced by electric vehicles to save our planet earth from global warming. The growing concern is to develop cost-effective, much safer, and long cycled life Li-ion batteries. Large storage devices such as for grid storage we need very efficient Na-ion batteries. The cathode, being a major component in any battery can alone raise the energy density of batteries up to 57% by doubling its capacity. Combining good electrochemical performance to safety and materials economy, chemists have discovered suites of cathode materials where the story started with oxides (e.g. LiCoO2 , LiMn2 O4 , LiMn3/2 Ni1/2 O4 , LiCo1/3, M 1/3, Ni1/3,O2 ), a plethora of polyanionic compounds have followed the suit. Among polyanionic compounds, LiFePO4 has seen the commercialization.











These polyanionic class of materials has been proven a ground for material discovery for Li-ion and Na-ion batteries with promising electrochemical performance along with chemical/ thermal stability, economy and operational safety. Lab-scale Na-ion batteries have been made from NaCo (PO3 )3 and NaFe(PO3 )3 but while studying intercalation chemistry, we found them to be a more efficient catalyst for metal-air batteries than the cathode. Another material which was studied and possible commercialization for large scale energy storage for Na-ion batteries can be imagined is pyrophosphate. Sodium metal pyrophosphate (Na2-x T M P2 O7 , T M = Fe, Co) forms an economic cathode alternative with a 3 V operation (vs Na/Na+) having capacity approaching 90 mAh/g with excellent rate kinetics and reversibility. For these polyanionic compounds, the strong inductive effect can increase the energy of the transition-metal redox couple and enhance the operating potential vis-a-vis sodium oxide cathodes.

The Hon’ble Vice President of India, Shri M. Venkaiah Naidu awarded the Gandhian Young Technological Innovation (GYTI) Award to Ritambhara Gond, Krishnakanth Sada and Anshuman Chaupatnaik, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore at the GYTI 2019 Awards function held at Vigyan Bhawan, New Delhi on July 06, 2019.

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